Maarten Maartensz

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 Philosophy - Problems - Assumptions


Problems

Introduction

Assumptions

Beauty
Belief
Consciousness
Death
Decisions
Desires
Determinism
Ethics
Existence
Freedom
Good and bad
Gove
rnment
Happiness
Humanity
Ideology
Induction
Individuality
Judgments
Justice

Kinds
Knowledge
Language
Logic
Love
Mathematics
Meaning
Mind
Methods
Morals
Mysticism
Necessity
Nature
Paradoxes
Particulars
Politics
Possibility
Power
Presuppositions
Probability
Questions
Rationality
Reality
Reason
Relativism
Religion
Science
Self
Skepticism

Society
Structure

Time
Totalitarianism
Truth

Universals 
Wishful thinking

 



Philosophy - Problems - Assumptions

Assumptions: In logic, statements that are explicitly supposed as true in arguments.

There are three things to be noted about assumptions:

1. One needs a term like this, whether premiss, presupposition, supposition or - like here - assumption, simply because one does make assumptions, and especially in the course of arguments.

2. Assumptions are supposed to be true, but need not be believed to be true. One reason is that one may make an assumption in order to refute it by a reductio ad absurdum; another reason is that one may need to make an assumption to explain something, without knowing that the assumption is true; a third reason is that one may for the moment simply make assumptions to see where the argument leads.

3. There is a general problem of assumptions, which may be stated as follows: What assumptions does one really make to explain something? (See: Presupposition) This sort of question is especially important in philosophy, logic, and epistemology, and it is often not at all easy to recognize and state clearly what it is that one in fact assumes as a matter of course. An example outside the fields mentioned is the grammar of one's natural language.

First Assumptions: The assumptions used to philosophize, think and explain.

As defined, the first assumptions one uses may be conscious and unconscious, and in the case of most men - who have not spend much of their time to reflect consciously on philosophical questions - most first assumptions will be largely unconscious, while those they are conscious of will tend to be based on wishful thinking.

Also, it should be noted that many of the important assumptions one uses in fact, such as those involved in natural language, and one's thoughts about one's self and other human beings are difficult to find and articulate, and have taken years of learning, most of which one did unconsciously in childhood.

The first assumption this dictionary is based on is

A listing of some some of the other important assumptions on which this dictionary is based can be found here:

Two sets of Rules of Reasoning that are involved in the testing of theories and in induction are here