Maarten Maartensz

  Philosophy - Philosophers - Thomas Hobbes

 

  Leviathan
   Part I
      
  

 

 


 


This is a html-edition of Part I, 'of Man', of 'Leviathan', by Thomas Hobbes, prepared and with notes by Maarten Maartensz.

The present html-text of Hobbes is based on

(1) the Project Gutenberg ASCII-text of Leviathan, that itself is based on
(2) Hobbes - Leviathan, printed in Pelican Classics.

The ASCII-text was released in May 2002; the Pelican Classics Edition I owe is a reprint of 1979 of a first edition by C.B. Macpherson of 1968, that claims to be a 1968 copy of a 1651 copy of the best original edition. This looks like a fine edition, and has an interesting and useful though sometimes overly marxist sounding introduction, that also attributes some assumptions to Hobbes, and some limitations according to Macpherson, that I, for one,  completely fail to see in Hobbes, such as

"Hobbes was using a mental model of society which, whether he was conscious of this or not, corresponds only to a bourgeois market society."
    (p. 38, op. cit.)

Besides the abovementioned two items, I have made some use of

(3) The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Ed. P. Edwards, volume 4, lemma 'Hobbes, Thomas', by R.S. Peters
(4) 'Body, Man and Citizen', a collection of selections by R.S. Peters from Hobbes' collected works.

The first of these is a good critical exposition of Hobbes' philosophy, by a specialist in the subject, in which what seem to me mistakes made by Macpherson, mentioned above, in his introduction to Leviathan, are avoided. (Mr. Mcpherson e.g. uses "bourgeois" thrice and "bourgeoisie" twice in just one single paragraph on p. 52 in (2), whereas Mr. Peters does not use the terms at all in (3) - for example.)

The last of these, item (4), has been available in paperback, which I know because I have a copy. Since the first edition is of 1962, I do not know whether it still is in print, but it is a useful selection.

The present html-edition was started in May 2008, and attempts to restore at least part of what needed to be left out for the ASCII-text, though this may take some time to achieve, and is not yet the case with most of this first html-edition, that also is as yet mostly without my own notes to Hobbes' text.

It seems as if the ASCII-text is of a later edition of the Pelican Classics version than the one I have, for I have noted a few small differences, but no major ones.

As it is my aim only to produce a useful html-edition, and not a textually perfect one, fit for scholarly use, for which I have neither the health, the time, the interest, or the necessary access to good original editions, it should be noted here that if you want to be tolerably sure of Hobbes' words and punctuation, you should consult a Pelican Classics version of Leviathan, or any other one that claims to be faithful to the original, if you want to be fairly sure of the precise accuracy of the text.

The reason to restrict myself - so far - to Part I of Leviathan is that the second part, 'of Commonwealth', is at least twice as long, while its content is more entwined with English social affairs in Hobbes' own time than is Part I.

Another reason, with which I concur, is stated by Peters in (3) as follows:

"Hobbes made acute remarks about the nature of miracles that mingled radical probing with subtle irony (indeed, one often wonders whether his whole treatment of "the true religion" is not a colossal piece of irony)."
   (p. 44, op. cit.)

Indeed, it seems mostly irony to me, and the reader who may wonder why Hobbes did not get into serious trouble with his many powerful Christian  contemporaries because of his ideas, should know that he was protected by King Charles II, whose mathematics tutor he had been, who liked his wit and admired his mind, and who himself seems to have been a very witty unbeliever.

The texts that follow have many links, and come all with a group of usually four arrows at the beginning and the end of each text, that look thus:
                                                   
These have in general the following effect when clicked:


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Maarten Maartensz
May 5, 2008
Amsterdam


THE FIRST PART


OF MAN


INTRODUCTION

1. OF SENSE

2. OF IMAGINATION

3. OF THE CONSEQUENCES OR TRAIN OF IMAGINATIONS

4. OF SPEECH

5. OF REASON AND SCIENCE

6. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS, COMMONLY CALLED THE PASSIONS; AND THE SPEECHES BY WHICH THEY ARE EXPRESSED

7. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE

8. OF THE VERTUES, COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUALL, AND THEIR
CONTRARY DEFECTS


9. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE

10. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR, AND WORTHINESSE

11.OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS

12. OF RELIGION

13. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND AS CONCERNING THEIR
FELICITY AND MISERY


14. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACT

15. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE

16. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED


 

last update: 02-Jan-2010