Nov 12, 2016

Crisis: Chris Hedges, Alex Emmons, Izzy Stone, William Pitts
Sections                                                                     crisis index

It’s Worse Than You Think
2. Commander-In-Chief Donald Trump Will Have Terrifying
     Powers. Thanks, Obama.

Journalism Icon I.F. Stone’s Words Ring Truer Than
     Ever in ‘All Governments Lie’

4. The Fascist in November

This is a Nederlog of Saturday, November 12, 2016.

As to Trump and Clinton, here is Mencken:

The men the American people admire most extravagantly are the most daring liars; the men they detest most violently are those who tell them the truth.
 -- H.L.Mencken
Incidentally: Neither the Republicans nor the Democrats told the truth to their voters. And basically, what follows is (for the third time) a survey of some of the attempts to grasp the implications of a Trumpian presidency.

This is a crisis log with 4 items and 4 dotted links and it consists of some deliberations on the meanings of Trump's election as president of the USA: Item 1 is about a fine article by Chris Hedges; item 2 is about another fine article by Alex Emmons; item 3 is about Izzy Stone; and item 4 is by William Pitts (and has the merit, as did Chris Hedges' article, of explicitly naming fascism).

And there may be a later Nederlog today, but I do not know yet.

-- Constant part, for the moment --

B. In case you visit my Dutch site: It was OK for two days now, but again didn't work out in Holland the last days: It keeps being horrible most days. And it still does (on 11.xi.2016).

In any case, I am now (again) updating the opening of my site with the last day it was updated. (And I am very sorry if you have to click/reload several times to see the last update: It is not what I wish, nor how it was. [1]

C. In case you visit my Danish site: This worked correctly on 11.xi.2016, but not the day before.

And I think now this happens intentionally on both my sites, for this did not happen for 20 years on the one, nor for 12 years on the other. (12.xi.2016)

I am very sorry, and none of it is due to me. I am simply doing the same things as I did for 20 or for 12 years, that also went well for 20 or for 12 years.

I will keep this introduction until I get three successive days (!!!) in which both providers work correctly. I have not seen that for many months now.

1. It’s Worse Than You Think

The first item today is by Chris Hedges on Truthdig:

From the beginning
Our capitalist democracy ceased to function more than two decades ago. We underwent a corporate coup carried out by the Democratic and Republican parties. There are no institutions left that can authentically be called democratic. Trump and Hillary Clinton in a functioning democracy would have never been presidential nominees. The long and ruthless corporate assault on the working class, the legal system, electoral politics, the mass media, social services, the ecosystem, education and civil liberties in the name of neoliberalism has disemboweled the country. It has left the nation a decayed wreck. We celebrate ignorance. We have replaced political discourse, news, culture and intellectual inquiry with celebrity worship and spectacle.
Yes indeed, though with two small remarks.

First, while I appreciate the fact that Chris Hedges more or less explicitly seems to include Bill Clinton's second government as being involved in "[t]
he long and ruthless corporate assault on the working class, the legal system, electoral politics, the mass media, social services, the ecosystem, education and civil liberties in the name of neoliberalism", which I think fair in principle, I think it is really more correct to date "[t]he long and ruthless corporate assault" on a real democracy and everything that would entail [3] as dating back to Reagan in 1981 and also Thatcher in 1979.

And second, I have been saying for quite a while now that (i) "neoliberalism" was and is a propaganda term, which cloaks mostly (ii) a system of thought that I can only fairly describe as neofascism, which I define in note [2] - and please note that the definition is mine, and considerably clearer than all other definitions I have read of the same term. (Indeed, from now on I will simply infer that self-declared "neoliberals" are in fact neofascists, until I have seen very good evidence why they are not.)

We proceed to consider fascism:
Fascism, as historian Gaetano Salvemini pointed out, is about “giving up free institutions.” It is the product of a democracy that has ceased to function. The democratic form will remain, much as it did during the dictatorships in the later part of the Roman Empire, but the reality is despotism, or in our case, corporate despotism. The citizen does not genuinely participate in power.
Again I have two small remarks.

First, if we are speaking about the USA (or the NUSA, for this really is a New or a Neofascist United States of America, that will get born with Trump's presidency) I much prefer the term "neofascism" over the term "fascism". You can see my reasons in note [2] and also in some more detail in my "
On Fascism and Neofascism: Definitions".

Second, I do not know that "
[t]he democratic form will remain" under Trump's presidency, and do so for at least two reasons: I do not know what "[t]he democratic form" means, while secondly both Mussolini and Hitler were absolute dictators, and Hitler opened his first concentration camp (Dachau) - the first of many more to come - within a week of becoming The Leader in Germany.

Next, Hedges quotes Chomsky, from 6 years ago:

“The United States is extremely lucky that no honest, charismatic figure has arisen,” Chomsky went on. “Every charismatic figure is such an obvious crook that he destroys himself, like [Joseph] McCarthy or [Richard] Nixon or the evangelist preachers. If somebody comes along who is charismatic and honest, this country is in real trouble because of the frustration, disillusionment, the justified anger and the absence of any coherent response. What are people supposed to think if someone says ‘I have got an answer: We have an enemy’? There it was the Jews. Here it will be the illegal immigrants and the blacks. We will be told that white males are a persecuted minority. We will be told we have to defend ourselves and the honor of the nation. Military force will be exalted. People will be beaten up. This could become an overwhelming force. And if it happens, it will be more dangerous than Germany. The United States is the world power. Germany was powerful but had more powerful antagonists. I don’t think all this is very far away. If the polls are accurate, it is not the Republicans but the right-wing Republicans, the crazed Republicans, who will sweep the next election.”
This was during Obama's first term as president. I think Chomsky was mistaken about how long it would take, but by not more than four years. And it is also true that Trump is the least honest of all American presidents, it seems.

But apart from these two relative niggles, Chomsky had it mostly quite right, in 2010. (Reread it from "
Here it will be the illegal immigrants and the blacks" till the end of the quotation to see what I think Chomsky did quite correctly predicted in 2010.)

Then there is this by Chris Hedges:
The repression of dissents will soon resemble the repression under past totalitarian regimes. State security will become an invasive and palpable presence. The most benign forms of opposition will be treated as if they are a threat to national security. Many, hoping to avoid the wrath of the state, will become compliant and passive. We, however, must fight back. We must carry out sustained acts of civil disobedience, as many have done in streets around the country since the election. But we must also be aware that the democratic space allotted to us in our system of inverted totalitarianism has become much, much smaller.
I think this is more or less correct - but I should warn those who are now protesting against Trump, that (i) Trump is not yet president, while (ii) as soon as Hitler was president he started locking up, abusing, torturing and destroying the Jews, the communists, the socialists and some Christians, who (iii) were the only groups to resist him (and were for the most part exterminated by him).

And I am not saying this is what will be happening in the (N)USA, but only what one of the two best parallels to Trump (Mussolini and Hitler) did do as soon as he was president of Germany.

Then there is this on Trump's enormous powers as president:
Trump, with no democratic institutions left to restrain him, will accelerate the corporate assault, from privatizing Social Security to exonerating militarized police forces for the indiscriminate murder of unarmed citizens, while he unleashes the fossil fuel industry and the war industry to degrade and most probably extinguish life on earth. His administration will be populated by the lunatic fringe of the Republican Party, men and women characterized by profound intellectual and moral impoverishment, as well as a stunning ability to ignore reality. These ideologues speak exclusively in the language of intimidation and violence.
This is a prediction. I do not know whether it will be right. I do know it is rational in the present circumstances. And indeed - as I have said before -
if humankind is still alive after four years of Trump, it may call itself extremely lucky (for Trump is a neofascist with far, far more powers than Hitler ever had).

Here is the present situation according to Chris Hedges:
Half the country lives in poverty. Our former manufacturing centers are decayed wrecks. Our constitutional rights, including due process and habeas corpus, have been taken from us by judicial fiat. Corporations and the billionaire class carry out legal tax boycotts. Police gun down unarmed citizens in the street. The military, under Section 1021 of the National Defense Authorization Act, is empowered to carry out the extraordinary rendition of U.S. citizens within the United States, strip them of due process and hold them indefinitely in our black sites. We are the most spied upon, watched, eavesdropped, photographed and monitored population in human history. When the government watches you 24 hours a day, you cannot use the word “liberty.” That is the relationship between a master and a slave. And governments that wield this kind of surveillance power swiftly become totalitarian. Trump and his cronies have been handed by bankrupt elites the legal and physical mechanisms to instantly transform America into a brutal police state.
I cannot say "No" to any of that, and draw your attention to (with a link added by me) "When the government watches you 24 hours a day, you cannot use the word “liberty.” That is the relationship between a master and a slave. And governments that wield this kind of surveillance power swiftly become totalitarian."

And I think these are good clues to what may happen, that may happen very fast, and be almost totally hidden and covered by section 1021 that "
is empowered to carry out the extraordinary rendition of U.S. citizens within the United States, strip them of due process and hold them indefinitely in our black sites" while also forbidding precisely these people, their families and their lawyers to say anything to anyone.

Here is one of Chris Hedges' predictions or anticipations:
Politics have been transformed, as philosopher Walter Benjamin wrote of fascism, into aesthetics. And the ultimate aesthetic experience for the fascist, Benjamin warned, is war.

State terror and state violence, familiar to poor people of color in our internal colonies, will become familiar to all of us. Racism, nationalism, misogyny, Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, intolerance, white supremacy, religious bigotry, hate crimes and a veneration of the hypermasculine values of military culture will define political and cultural discourse.
I don't know whether this will be correct, but something like this seems very likely (and see the above extreme dangers implicit in section 1021 and other
absolute powers created under Bush Jr. and Obama).

This is on the mainstream media:
The rot of our failed democracy vomited up a con artist who was a creation of the mass media—first playing a fictional master of the universe on a reality television show and later a politician as vaudevillian. Trump pulled in advertising dollars and ratings. Truth and reality were irrelevant. Only when he got the nomination did the mass media see their Frankenstein as a threat, but by then it was too late. If there is one vapid group that is hated even more than the liberal class, it is the corporate press.
Yes, indeed. Also, the mainstream media - that includes The Guardian and The Huffington Post (and NRC-Handelsblad in Holland) - will keep lying, falsifying, propagandizing and deceiving, simply because the real journalists and the real editors have been removed, shifted down, and lost power to the propagandists who only think of the profits they will make for themselves with their lies and deceptions.

The deceptive and propagandistic mainstream media are the main power that made Trump president of the USA. They cannot be trusted and they have changed radically over the last 15 years: Whoever relies on a paper that makes even copying impossible - in these internet days!! - relies on the eager helpmeets of the rich. [4]

And this is again a fine and recommended article by Chris Hedges - who risks being disappeared real soon now and who may disappear in "night and fog" (<- Wikipedia link), like many outspoken critics of Trump may. [5]

2. Commander-In-Chief Donald Trump Will Have Terrifying Powers. Thanks, Obama.

The second item is by Alex Emmons on The Intercept:

This starts as follows:

When Donald Trump becomes commander in chief in January, he will take on presidential powers that have never been more expansive and unchecked.

He’ll control an unaccountable drone program, and the prison at Guantanamo Bay. His FBI, including a network of 15,000 paid informants, already has a record of spying on mosques and
activists, and his NSA’s surveillance empire is ubiquitous and governed by arcane rules, most of which remain secret. He will inherit bombing campaigns in seven Muslim countries, the de facto ability to declare war unilaterally, and a massive nuclear arsenal — much of which is on hair-trigger alert

Caught off guard by Hillary Clinton’s election defeat, Democrats who defended these powers under President Obama may suddenly be having second thoughts as the White House gets handed over to a man they described — with good reason — as “unhinged,” and “dangerously unfit.”

Yes, indeed - and it was very wrong to give Obama these powers, but then the Democratic leadership was never interested in curbing extreme powers, but predominantly - it seems - in getting as large as possible a slice from the riches they could get as politicians. (Not all, but many.)

Here is one example of how the Democrats were not interested in curbing extreme powers:

When the New York Times revealed Bush’s warrantless wiretapping program in 2005, 60 percent of registered Democrats thought the program was “unacceptable.” But after NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed a dramatically larger surveillance apparatus in 2013, a 61 percent of Democrats said the opposite — presumably because they trusted the man in charge.

But you should never trust "the man in charge" and you should always have the laws to tame him - but what happened ever since Reagan were waves and waves of deregulations of all kinds, that all amounted to giving up each and any law that might curtail the powers of the rich to exploit anyone as crudely as they wanted for monetary profit.

This is what will very probably happen on January 20, 2017:

After eight years of trusting the President with expanding military power, liberals must now reckon with the fact that Obama will pass the same capabilities to a man who has proposed killing terrorists’ innocent family members, who has said he would do “a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding,” and who has suggested dipping bullets in pigs’ blood is sound counterterrorism strategy.

And most of the paltry few legal limitations that regulate the security state could easily be repealed by a President Trump.

This last prediction is probably also very correct: The NUSA's Security State (which already has the abbreviation "SS") will get absolute powers over absolutely every American. And this will mean that every thought, every value, every idea that any American has will now be known to the heads of the NSA and the FBI, and very well may be permitted only if they approve them.

There is this on the Noble Obama's Deportation Force, that will be inherited by Donald Trump:

Trump has said he would create “a deportation force” – apparently ignorant of the fact that he’ll inherit one. Obama has increased the budget for immigration enforcement to an all-time high and accelerated the rate of deportations.  Obama has deported more than 2.5 million people – already more than any other President – and has made the Department of Homeland Security the largest law enforcement agency in the country.

Obama also already incarcerates hundreds of thousands of immigrants in detention centers, and forces young children
to appear before immigration judges without a lawyer.

Since a Democratic president could do this, surely a Republican president like Donald Trump will be abled to extend this very much.

And there is this on the extremely dangerous neofascist powers of the NSA:

As for the NSA, Congress passed a law in 2015 ending the bulk collection of Americans’ phone records and replaced it with a modified program. But according to a former State Department official, the phone records program is minuscule compared to the government’s “universe of collection” under Executive Order 12333, which Trump is free to reinterpret or modify.

To make matters worse, the Obama administration has convinced courts that citizens cannot challenge the legality of NSA programs until they can prove they are under surveillance. Because government secrecy makes that generally impossible, courts have started to reject anti-surveillance lawsuits on procedural grounds.

In fact, Obama's "law" that the government's secret service cannot be legally challenged without a proof that a person has been followed by the secret service, which is impossible to prove because this is the state's secret, was a classically fascistic stratagem that protected all spying and all spies, and gave up all rights of any ordinary member of the public - and it was and is a classically fascistic stratagem because the same kinds of "laws" were framed in Hitler's Germany to protect the Secret Police of the State, otherwise known as the Gestapo. (And of course the Noble Obama knew this, as a former professor of law.)

Here is something else that Trump will inherit from Obama:

Trump, who has said he would “bomb the shit” out of terror groups and has proposed killing terrorists’ innocent families, will also inherit a global, unaccountable program of drone assassination.

And this also comes with a classically fascist touch-up by Obama:

The Obama administration has also convinced courts that they have no role to play in reviewing the legality of drone strikes – even when it involves killing a U.S. citizen.

Then there is this extreme danger:

And perhaps most alarming is that Trump will inherit a Justice Department that has waged an unprecedented war on press freedom. Rather than shut down the Bush-era office that prosecuted leaks to the press, Obama made it his own, and has prosecuted more than twice as many people under the Espionage Act for leaking information to the press than all of his predecessors combined. His actions met with no resistance from Democrats.

Actually, I am far less concerned with the Espionage Act than I am with the genuine possibility that Trump - as president - will prosecute anyone who seriously criticizes him, or his government, or his policies, or his values, or his ends.

Here is that last threat to press freedom expanded a little:

The legacy of that system is now passing into the hands of someone who has made a show of his contempt for the media. During his campaign, Trump repeatedly incited crowds against reporters, threatened publications with defamation lawsuits, and expressed his desire to “open up those libel laws.”

This is another recommended article.

3. Journalism Icon I.F. Stone’s Words Ring Truer Than Ever in ‘All Governments Lie’

The third item is by
Jordan Riefe on Truthdig:

This starts as follows, and is here because I like I.F. Stone (<- Wikipedia):

“All governments lie,” said legendary journalist I.F. Stone, who dedicated his career to uncovering those lies in I.F. Stone’s Weekly, a prototypical print blog he ran out of his house for close to 20 years. His famous maxim is the title of an incisive critique of mainstream media in theaters now—“All Governments Lie: Truth, Deception, and the Spirit of I.F. Stone,” directed by Fred Peabody and executive-produced by Oliver Stone.

A legendary political writer for the New York Post and The Nation during the 1930s and ’40s, Isidor Feinstein Stone (Izzy) was blacklisted in 1950 but would not be muzzled. Beginning with a readership of 5,000, including Marilyn Monroe and Albert Einstein, I.F. Stone’s Weekly had amassed more than 70,000 readers when he discontinued it in 1971. It was cited number 16 in “The Top 100 Works of Journalism in the United States in the 20th Century.”

Yes, indeed - and perhaps I should say (once more) that I.F. Stone did not say "All governments always lie", and did not mean that either: What he meant was that (i) no one can trust the speakers for the most powerful institution there is (whatever the government is) and (ii) therefore whatever speakers for the government say should be checked for its truth.

But then Izzy Stone was one of the very few who really did so in the 1950ies and 1960ies, while since 2001 this was left systematically and on purpose not done anymore by any of the mainstream media:

(...) CBS chief Les Moonves is caught saying of Trump, “It may not be good for America, but it’s damn good for CBS” at the Morgan Stanley Technology, Media & Telecom Conference earlier this year. “I’ve never seen anything like this, and this is going to be a very good year for us. Sorry. It’s a terrible thing to say. But bring it on, Donald. Keep going.”

Which is to say, quite literally as well, that Les Moonves was corrupted (<-Wikipedia) by the money he would get; gave up doing any decent journalism; and thus helped the neofascist to power over the USA - and this was not just CBS which did this, but it were all the mainstream media that did this: They chose for the money, and to get the money they chose to give up doing any real journalism.

Finally, here is Jeremy Scahill on the slow coup which has happened, and which started in the USA with Ronald Reagan in 1981:

In 2014, Jeremy Scahill formed The Intercept with Glenn Greenwald, formerly of The Guardian, and documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras (“Citizenfour”), who resigned in September. The Intercept initiative was underwritten by a $250 million endowment from eBay founder Pierre Omidyar.

“If we don’t get to the heart of the matter, that there was, long ago, a coup in this country, a silent coup where corporations took total control of the process of selecting leaders in this country, then nothing’s going to change,” warns Scahill, who began his journalism career as a Democracy Now! intern. “The coup has already happened, and none of these people seem to realize it.”

Yes indeed - but "that there was, long ago, a coup in this country, a silent coup where corporations took total control of the process of selecting leaders in this country" is still not understood by the majority, and indeed may in fact be understood by a relatively small percentage of the American population.

4. The Fascist in November

The fourth item is by William Rivers Pitt (<- Wikipedia) on Truth-out:

This is from the beginning:

I do believe I will also remember, to my dying day, where I was when the people of the United States elected an unabashed, bull-throated fascist to the office of the President.

Yes, we are talking about a fascist, one with many fascist friends who are loud and proud about their menacing white nationalism, a fascist gleefully endorsed by a Ku Klux Klan that traded in its bedsheets for power ties a long time ago and seized the ultimate prize in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016. A fascist Mussolini would have recognized on sight, for it was Mussolini's movement that coined fascism in a barn nearly 100 years ago, calling it the merger of state and corporate power. What is that, if not President-elect Donald J. Trump?

I agree, except that I call Trump a neofascist rather than a fascist (and you find my definitions of these terms in note [2], and they are recommended, because they are both original and based on considerable knowledge, not only of fascism and neofascism, but also of logic, definitions and philosophy of science).

Here are some of the people whose rights, and indeed perhaps whose existence, are threatened by a Trumpian government (that will be there from January 20, 2017 onwards):

Every woman in the country now wears a target, because the President of the United States considers them to be little more than sex toys. Boys will see this, boys will learn it, and some of them will likely act on it when they become men. My daughter now lives under this threat, as does yours.

And we can only imagine how the ongoing war on Black men, women and children will continue to worsen under this authoritarian leader, all in the name of that cold steel fist called "Law and Order."

There is this on Pitt's expectations of the first two years of Trump's presidency, when he will have majorities everywhere:

Our newly minted fascist president-elect will have at least two years with a GOP-controlled Congress to pack the high court and spray the Capitol dome with all manner of vicious legislation and surly nominations, and the GOP will probably allow him to do so, lest it incur his celebrated wrath.

Yes, that is probably correct. Here is the ending of William Pitts:

We walk the long hall of history together now, the fascist, you and I. There is a grim and inescapable responsibility in this. How will you stand, and how will you walk?

I can say a few things about "How will you stand, and how will you walk" and I can do so because my family was on of the very few Dutch families that resisted the Nazis (who arrested my grandfather and my father in 1941 for resisting,  and convicted them to the concentration camp where my grandfather was murdered, while my mother also was in the communist resistance but was never arrested [6]):

The best expectation there is about Trump's government are the governments of Mussolini and Hitler. If Trump's government will be like theirs (and that is a fair expectation) then it will be a dictatorship very soon, and this will mean that everyone who is a known opponent of Trump will get arrested (which you probably will not hear because saying so by anyone will also be forbidden) and will disappear in "night and fog" (<- Wikipedia).

It will also mean that there will be (after the - probably untold (!!) - disappearance of the known opponents) at most 1% who have the guts to oppose Trump, and most of these will be very rapidly found, thanks to the NSA, and will also disappear.

And that will be it. I am quite willing to agree that I am "negative" here, but then I am trying to predict the future on the basis of the evidence I have.

In any case, we will know within three or four months. And as before: I very much hope I am mistaken, but I am judging on the basis of evidence.

[1] Alas, this is precisely as I said it does, and it goes on for months now. I do not know who does it, and I refuse to call the liars of "xs4all" (really: the KPN), simply because these have been lying to me from 2002-2009, and I do not trust anything they say I cannot control myself: They have treated me for seven years as a liar because "you complain about things other people do not complain about" (which is the perfect excuse never to do anything whatsoever for anyone).

I am saying this not because I want to offend but because I want to explain, and my own explanatory definition of neofascism is this:
Neofascism is a. A social system that is marked by a government with a centralized powerful authority, where the opposition is propagandized and suppressed or censored, that propounds an ethics which has profit as its main norm, and that has a politics that is rightwing, nationalistic, pro-capitalist, anti-liberal, anti-equality, and anti-leftist, and that has a corporative organization of the economy in which multi-national corporations are stronger than a national government or stateb. A political philosophy or movement based on or advocating such a social system.

And this is fascism as I defined it:
Fascism is a. A social system that is marked by a government with centralized authority and a dictator, that suppresses the opposition through propaganda, censorship and terror, that propounds an ethics founded on discipline, virility, and collectivism, that has a politics that is totalitarian, anti-liberal, anti-individualist, anti-equality, and anti-Marxist, that is also authoritarian, rightwing and nationalistic, and often racist, and that has a corporative organization of the economy, b. A political philosophy or movement based on or advocating such a social system.
See the following if you are interested: On Fascism and Neofascism: Definitions. (This lists 22 definitions of the term "fascism", and critically reflects on them.)

[3] I think I am quite correct here, and indeed I do not understand Chris Hedges' "two decades" (but he may have been speaking imprecisely).

[4] Yes indeed, and this does cover The Guardian and The Huffington Post: I find it extremely unfair that you can't even copy these (except as photographs), which means that their news will be very much harder to discuss. I will not discuss the - by now very awful - Dutch NRC Handelsblad here, but I do wish to say that the former chief editors of both The Guardian and The Huffington Post have left, and that the copying restriction was introduced after their leaving, by the new chief editors. For me that was the absolute end of any trust.

[5] Yes, indeed. I have no idea about what will happen under a Trumpian presidency (other than: whatever it will be, it will very probably be bad) but yes, persons like Chris Hedges and Bill Maher, both of whom criticized Trump a lot, run serious risks of being arrested (and people like me - I am not an American - run serious risks of not knowing this until much later).

[6] And incidentally, my father was knighted in 1980 (briefly before he died) by the Dutch Queen Juliana, which made my father - a communist for 45 years in 1980 - the only Dutch communist who was ever knighted while the Dutch Communist Party existed.

Also, while I think my father's knighthood was quite justified, I also think that quite a few other Dutch communists should  have been knighted as well, but it was both a governmental policy and a royal policy not to knight any communist (while the Dutch Communist Party was the only party that went into the resistance, immediately on May 15. 1940, while it lost over 2000 of its members during the 5 years of war).

Indeed, my father may very well have been knighted by accident, as his knighthood was not initiated by anyone in the Dutch CP, and was for making an exhibition about fascism and the resistance. (But I don't know.)

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